The prince made no further explanations, save to impress it upon the messenger that such must be soldierdhooting message delivered; and as we started for our trip around the great island of Hawaii, the attendant left for her mistress's houses and hawali in Honolulu. I may anticipate a little in order to continue the thread of this story. When our tour was over, and we returned to Honolulu, the first day of our arrival was a day of rest; but on the succeeding day, possibly a little later, Prince Lot, Queen Emma, Mrs.
Bishop, and perhaps some others, were summoned to be present at the birth of the child of the Princess Ruth. The babe was born that afternoon at about three o'clock, in the house called Halaniani, on the veranda of which the prince waited for tidings of the mother and child for hours. Finally, at half-past five, Queen Emma appeared, and addressing the prince, asked him if he had heard from his sister, to which he replied that he had not.
She expressed much surprise, and told him that the newly born infant had been taken away as her own by Mrs. Bishop over an hour ago. This intelligence was extremely unpleasant to the prince, and he at once declared that he would never have anything to do with that. He carried his purpose into immediate execution by insisting within a week from that time that his sister Ruth should legally adopt as her own my brother Leleiohoku, whom she had taken from his parents at birth.
He then made out two instruments of adoption for his sister to. By one she gave her child to Mrs. Bishop irrevocably, cutting it off from all interest in her property, and by the other she adopted as her child and heir, William Pitt Leleiohoku, the second of that name. All the papers were carefully drawn up by the prince, and everything connected with the adoption was made complete, so forr in no event could the legality of my brother's position be doubted.
The innocent cause of this disturbance, the child lookig adopted by Mrs. Bishop and named Keolaokalani, died in about six months; my brother lived to be named heir apparent, and indeed to fill the office of regent during the absence of Kalakaua. After making the tour of Hawaii, Prince Lot, accompanied by his guests, returned as far as the island of Maui, where it is possible we might have remained longer had it not soldietshooting for the illness of his brother, the reigning king.
Having been notified that this was approaching a fatal termination, and that his presence was required at the capital, His Royal Highness returned at once to Honolulu, where Alexander, Kamehameha IV. His widow, Queen Emma, although once a candidate for the throne, was never again in public life. She went abroad, however, inbeing received in England in a manner becoming her rank. She returned to Honolulu in on the United States ship Vanderbilt, commanded by Admiral Henry Knox Thatcher, only to learn at once of a new affliction in the death of her adopted mother, Mrs.
On the accession to the throne of Prince Lot as Kamehameha V.
The king was surrounded by his own people, with whom he was in perfect accord, but showed this mark of royal favor to my husband co,panion because he preferred to advise with him on matters of public importance. My husband was further made governor of the island on which Honolulu is situated; and although the appointment was nominally for four years, yet it was always renewed, without the least discussion or hesitation, as long as he lived.
It was a part of his official duty to make a tour of the whole island at least once a year; this was always rendered a most agreeable excursion, and I invariably accompanied him in the journey. Besides this position he held other offices of importance under the Hawaiian government, being at one time governor of the island of Maui; commissioner of the administration of the crown lands; attached to the suite of my brother, the late King Kalakaua, on his visit to this country in in the interest of reciprocity; loooing finally being a member of the Hawaiian embassy which visited this country and Great Britain inrepresenting our nation at the Queen's Jubilee.
But in the fall ofGovernor Dominis, who was then lieutenant-general of the kingdom with the rank of His Royal Highness Prince Consort, was in rapidly failing health; and on the 27th of August of that year, seven months after my accession to the throne, he died. His remains were laid in state in the palace; and on Sunday, Sept. His death occurred at a soldiershootin when his long experience in public life, companioh amiable qualities, and his universal popularity, would have made him an adviser to me for whom no substitute could possibly be found.
I have often said that it pleased the Almighty Ruler of nations to take him away from me at precisely the time when I felt that I most needed his counsel and companionship. THE Hawaiian people have been from time immemorial lovers of poetry and music, and have been apt in improvising historic poems, songs of love, conpanion chants of worship, so that praises of the living or wails over the dead were with them but the natural statement of their feelings.
My ancestors were peculiarly gifted in this respect, and yet it is remarkable that there are few if any hili1 compositions of the music of Hawaii excepting those published by me. In my school-days my facility in reading music at sight was always recognized by my instructors. At the schools I attended, and of which mention has already been made, there was one boy by my side who could read the airs of new tunes which the teachers were anxious to introduce to the pupils. His name, I remember, was Willie Andrews.
The untried music was handed to us; and we sang it by note, the rest of the pupils following by ear until the whole assembly were acquainted with the new music. After leaving school, my musical education was continued from loiking to time as opportunity offered, but I scarcely remember the days when it would not have been possible for me to write either the words or the music for any occasion on which cojpanion or song was conpanion.
To compose was as natural to me as to breathe; and this gift of nature, never having been suffered to fall into disuse, remains a source fot the greatest consolation to this day. I have never yet ed my compositions, but am sure that they must run well up to the hundreds. Of these not more than a quarter have been printed, but the most popular have been in such demand that several editions have been exhausted.
Hours of which it is not yet in place to speak, which I might have found long and lonely, passed quickly and cheerfully by, occupied and soothed by the statement of sildiershooting thoughts in music; and even when I was denied the aid of any instrument I could transcribe to paper the tones of my voice. In the early years of the reign of Kamehameha V. Each nation, he said, but ours had its statement of patriotism and love of country in its own music; but we were using for that purpose on state occasions the time-honored British anthem, "God save the Queen.
In one week's time I notified the king that I had completed my task. The Princess Victoria had been the leader of the choir of the Kawaiahao church; but upon her death, May 29, I assumed the leadership. It was in this building and by that choir that I first introduced the "Hawaiian National Anthem. He admired not only the beauty of the music, but spoke enthusiastically of the appropriate words, so well adapted to the air and to the purpose for which they were written.
This remained in use as our national anthem for some twenty years or more, when my brother composed the words of the Hawaii Ponoi. He was at the time the reigning king, and gave directions to the master of the band to set these to music. He, being a German, found some composition from his own country which he deemed appropriate; and this has been considered of late years our national air.
In the changes of the past few years, the words written by His Majesty Kalakaua have been found no longer adapted to public occasions; so while the music is still played, such sentiments as "Look to the people" have been substituted for the ancient injunction to "Look to the king. As soon as the king learned of the duke's presence he made special preparations for his reception; and for his better accommodation on shore he ased for his use the residence of the late Kekuanaoa, who died in November of the solidershooting year.
My own mother having died about three months prior to the arrival of the Galatea, I was not taking part in any festivities, being in retirement from society. But this was considered an exceptional occasion, and the king ified his wish to me that I would not fail to do it honor. So at his specific request I gave a grand luau at my Waikiki residence, to which were invited all those connected with the government, indeed, all the first families of the city, whether of native or foreign birth. Major J.
Wodehouse, so long the ambassador of Great Britain at Honolulu, had just arrived with Mrs. Wodehouse; and they were of the invited guests, the prince specially inviting them to drive out to my house with him. I suppose the feast would be styled a breakfast in other lands, for it was to begin at eleven o'clock in the forenoon. The sailor-prince mounted the driver's box of the carriage, and taking the reins from that official, showed himself lookong expert in the management of coompanion.
All the members of the royal family of England are, I understand, excellent horsemen; and in doing this the Duke of Edinburgh was only following customs to which he had been trained in his own land. Cleghorn, and became the mother of the Princess Kaiulani. The drivers of these carriages wore the royal feather shoulder-capes, and the footmen were also clad in like royal fashion.
It was considered one of the grandest occasions in the history of those days, and all passed off as becoming the high birth and commanding position of our visitor. The guests were received with every mark of courtesy by my husband and myself, as well as by His Majesty Kamehameha V. When the prince entered he was met by two very pretty Hawaiian ladies, who advanced, and, according to the custom of our country, decorated him with leisor long, pliable wreaths of flowers suspended from the neck.
As Mrs. Bush, considered one of the most beautiful women in the Hawaiian Islands, advanced, and proceeded to tie the flowery garland about the neck of the prince, he seemed perhaps a bit confused at the novel custom; but, submitting with the easy grace of a gentleman, he appeared to be excessively pleased with the flowers and with the expression of friendly welcome conveyed to him by the act. Balls, picnics, and parties followed this day of enjoyment; and the prince gave an entertainment in return at his own house, which was attended by my husband and myself, and by most of the distinquished persons in the city.
The day of departure for the Galatea arrived; and the prince called on me to express the pleasure he had taken during his visit, and the regrets he felt at leaving us. On this occasion he presented me with an armlet emblematic of his profession; it was of solid gold, a massively wrought chain made after the pattern of a ship's cable, with anchor as a pendant.
He also gave me copies of two of his own musical compositions; and to this day I keep and cherish these three souvenirs of the son of Soldiershootng good queen, and at the same time one of England's noblest sailors. We have met once since those days, at the Queen's Jubilee, during my visit to London in Our past acquaintance was cordially recognized by the prince, who was then my escort on a state occasion, my nearest neighbor on the other hqwaii being the present Emperor of Germany.
On the 10th of that month my husband and I were summoned to the palace to attend the dying monarch; one by one other chiefs of the Hawaiian people, with a few of their trusted retainers, also arrived to be present at solviershooting final scene; we spent that night watching in silence near the king's bedside. The disease was pronounced by the medical men to soldiersholting dropsy on the chest.
At nine o'clock on the day following we were drawn up in compainon little circle about his cmpanion. Among other considerations forced upon us at this solemn moment was that of a successor to the throne, which, respecting the right of nomination, rested with the king. Those present were his half-sister, the Princess Ruth, Mrs. Pauahi Bishop, Mrs. Fanny Young, the compnion of Queen Emma, and myself, all eligible candidates in the female line.
At the doors of the apartment were Prince William Lunalilo and my brother, David Kalakaua, also heirs presumptive to the throne, while watching at a respectful distance were retainers of these chiefs. The attorney-general, Hon. Stephen H. Phillips, Hon. Nahaolelua, afterwards a member of my brother's cabinet, my husband, General Dominis, Kamakou, and two women in attendance occupied the space between us and the doors.
Although nearing the end, the mind haawii the king was still clear; and his thoughts, like our own, were evidently on the selection of a future ruler for the island kingdom, for, turning to Mrs. Bishop, he asked her to assume the reins of government and become queen at his death. She hesitated a moment, soldkershooting then quietly inquired why His Majesty did not appoint as his successor his sister, the Princess Ruth Keelikolani, to which question the king replied that the princess would not be capable of undertaking with success the responsibilities of government, to which Mrs.
Bishop reed, "Oh, but we will all help her to the best of our ability. To this the counsellor gave a soldiershpoting truthful, yet scarcely fortunate response, saying, "Any one, may it please Your Majesty, of the chiefs now present. The foremost candidate for the vacancy was undoubtedly the king's first cousin, Prince William Lunalilo; and in the matter of birth nothing could be said adverse to his claim. His mother was Kekauluohi, niece and step-daughter of Kamehameha the Great; he was popular, and of an amiable, easy disposition.
But there were grave reasons why the choice was injudicious, and indeed hardly constitutional; for Prince Willliam's personal habits even at this time were such that he was under the guardianship of Mr. Bishop, the banker, his property being out of his own control, while he received from his guardian an allowance of only twenty-five dollars a month as spending money. His selection was chiefly due to the influence of companlon representatives of the single island of Oahu, but having once been announced, was accepted with the usual cheerfulness and good faith displayed by the Hawaiian people, who have always been loyal subjects to any one of their own acknowledged chiefs.
His cousin, Kamehameha V. Wylie, Mr. Harris, Mr. Hutchinson, Hon. Phillips, and others, all men of ability, but not associated with what is known as the missionary party. On the ascension of Lunalilo, this latter party showed a determination to control the king, and by subjecting his weakness to their strength, to influence the fate of the Hawaiian people and the destiny of the Islands. They succeeded in securing the following cabinet: Hon.
Bishop Foreign AffairsE. Hall InteriorR. Stirling FinanceA. Judd Attorney-General ; two out of these four were from families who landed upon our shores with the single intention to teach our people the religion of Christ. The policy of the new cabinet was distinctively American, in opposition to that which may properly be called Hawaiian; the latter looking to the prosperity and progress of the nation as an independent sovereignty, the former seeking to render the Islands a mere dependency, either openly or under sufficient disguise, on the government of the United States.
Then, as at the present day, the entering wedge was the concession of a harbor of refuge or repair at Pearl River. The proposition created great excitement, and was vehemently opposed by those of native birth; for patriotism, which with us means the love of the very soil on which our ancestors have lived and died, forbade us to view with equanimity the sight of any foreign flag, not excepting the one for which we have always had the greatest respect, floating as a matter of right over any part of our land.
There is a gentleman still living at Honolulu whose boast is that he was the father of the project to annex Hawaii to the American Union. It may, therefore, be perfectly permissible to mention here that com;anion Pearl Harbor scheme of is declared with good reason to have originated with him, — Dr. John S. McGrew, — and was then openly advocated by him as a preliminary to the obliteration of the native government by the annexation of the whole group to the United States.
But in the midst of the discord produced by the agitation, the king's health began to fail rapidly; and at his express wish the project of the missionary party at that time to enter into closer relations with their own country was laid aside until a more convenient season. A change was recommended to Lunalilo; and arrangements were made for a trip to the largest island, Hawaii, noted with us for its high mountains and the favorable influences of its climate on the health. By the advice of Dr.
Trousseau, the king's physician, it was decided to go to Kailua; and thither went the royal party. Besides Dr. Trousseau, the king's chamerlain, Mr. Charles H. Pauahi Bishop, Kapiolani, afterwards queen by virtue of marriage with my brother Leleiohoku, my younger brother, some others perhaps — and myself.
The Hawaiian Band of native musicians also were with us; and every attempt was made to divert the mind of the king from his malady, and insure a favorable change. During our stay we were often visited by emissaries from Honolulu, urging upon the king the appointment of a successor, or praying him to return to the capital for the consideration of the subject, to all of which suggestions he appeared to be at least indifferent, if not absolutely opposed.
In fact, he said openly enough that he himself owed his scepter to the people, and he saw no reason why the people should not elect his successor. I suppose it is no secret, but really a matter of history, that the person most ambitious to succeed him in the rule of the Hawaiian nation was Emma, the widow of Alexander Liholiho, Kamehameha IV.
She and a of her retainers were with us during our entire stay, although she had taken advantage of residence there to make some excursions in the neighborhood. Amongst these I especially recall a trip she made to the mountain, Hualalai, to visit the celebrated temple of Ahuaumi. This place once devoted to our ancient worship is a wonderful pile of rock, built by one of the kings of past centuries, and its construction was comparatively a short work, and yet each single stone must have been raised by a multitude of strong hands and muscular arms, passed from one set of laborers to another until it found its location in the structure; and the whole building thus completed was consecrated by Umi to the gods, and used for purposes then deemed most sacred.
Visitors usually make this one of the celebrities to be seen if they are near enough to its location; but I regret to say there must have been those in the vicinity who had no respect for sacred antiquities, for a of these stones, so laboriously erected, have been torn down, and from them a goat-pen has been built. It was not long, however, that any of our party could indulge in recreation, for the rapid failure of the health of the king rendered it necessary for some one of us to be always watching with him.
When it came to be the turn of Queen Emma, she urged him in plain language to nominate her to assume the reins of government at his decease; but his determination appeared to be unchanged to leave the selection to the people. Even when I was by his bedside, doing my duty as one of those chosen by birth to stand near during his dying hours, Queen Emma did not cease from her persistency, but again broached the subject of succession, and spoke to the king of the great importance to his people of naming an heir to the throne.
The indelicacy of this persuasion from a Hawaiian point of view will be understood by those who have studied our national customs. He made her no reply, but turned from her as he lay on his bed. It was considered best that he should return to Honolulu, to which reluctantly he consented; so, accompanied by the chiefs and their attendants, we returned with him home. As long as he retained consciousness he insisted that the selection of a successor should be left to the people, and even his ministers were powerless to change his determination; and with a full intention of allowing the succession to be settled by ballot rather than by his constitutional right of appointment, he passed away, apparently without pain.
Indeed, so peaceful was his end that the appearance of death began long before its reality, and the marshal of the realm, supposing the king to be dead, undertook the draping of the palace; scarcely had the long festoons of crape been hung upon the outer walls when it was discovered that the king was living. It was not thought best to remove these emblems of mourning, for their use might be appropriate at any moment; so an attempt was made to cover or conceal them and they were really in position about two day before the final scene.
Although Queen Emma was not named by the king as his successor, it was found that he had liberally remembered her in his will. A most important proviso of that instrument was the fund left for the founding of the Lunalilo Home for aged and indigent Hawaiians. This institution admits those of both sexes, the men being in one department and the women in another.
It is well managed, and its inmates are happy and contented, so much so, indeed, that they often conduct themselves as if youth and hope were still their portion, and from the sympathy of daily companionship they wish to enter the closer tie of matrimony. This they are permitted to do without severing their connection with the institution, and there is a separate department provided for those who have thus agreed to finish their journey of life together.
THE contest for the succession which resulted in the elevation of my family — the Keaweaheulu line — to royal honors is of course a matter of history. Since the king had refused to nominate his successor, the election was with the legislature. It must not be forgotten, however, that the unwritten law of Hawaii Nei required that the greatest chief, or the one having the most direct claim to the throne, must rule.
The legislature could not choose from the people at large, but was confined to a decision between rival claimants having an equal or nearly equal relation in the chiefhood to the throne. Queen Emma's claim was not derived through her own family, but as the widow of Liholiho, one of the Kamehamehas. The great-grandfather of Kalakaua the other claimantand Kamehameha I. Now, it is not denied that Queen Emma had a rightful candidacy. It has already been seen that the king hesitated, and finally failed to decide between her rights and those of our family to succession.
It was not the duty of the legislature to determine the question. From the fact that Queen Emma was a resident of Honolulu, the capital, and the immediate scene of the election, has arisen the impression that she was the real choice of the Hawaiian people. She naturally had about her a considerable personal following, scheming for office, and a large body of retainers, all within the city and environs; and hence could there make a formidable showing.
She had also, of course, partisans here and there throughout the Islands. Her canvass was, however, limited almost exclusively to intrigue within the city, while Kalakaua and his friends sought the suffrages of the country people and their representatives. Each party was vigorous in its own way, and there was great excitement. It cannot be said that either party felt much assurance as to the result, until the vote was actually declared.
But Queen Emma herself seems never to have doubted that she must be the chosen sovereign; and it was policy for her advisers to flatter her expectation, upon which their own fortunes hung. For this she should rather have our sympathy than our reprobation. Her active candidacy was legitimate, and compatible with public spirit. But for her subsequent course there is little justification.
Her disappointment assumes too personal a manifestation to be excused in the representative of royal responsibilities. It is therefore because of its political consequence that I deem it proper to record here what will doubtless seem to the public, from any other point of view, a mere detail of feminine pettiness. It is a fact that Queen Emma ardently desired and hoped to succeed King Lunalilo, and that during the time that he lay unconscious, with life barely perceptible to those of us who stood nearest him, she was busily whispering among her friends the details of her plans.
I was presently informed that she purposed to supersede General Dominis by Mr. Pratt as governor of Oahu, and that various other government positions had been promised. But if our party attended with its eyes to the intrigue, it at least maintained silence until the king died, and his remains were removed to Iolani Palace, and laid in state in the Red Chamber on the royal feather robe of Princess Nahienaena, the sister of Kamehameha III.
At the first and only ballot it was found that David Kalakaua was elected, receiving thirty-nine votes to the six votes cast for the rival candidate, Queen Emma. The vote, no doubt a surprise to Honolulu, being declared to the people who surrounded the legislative halls, was received with acclamation, mingled with shouts of disapproval. Naturally, the partisians of Queen Emma, being residents of Honolulu, and some of them inspired with liquor, were easily incited to riotous action.
They were re-enforced by her own dependants, who came to their assistance from her residence. This was between three and four o'clock of the afternoon of the 12th of February, An attack was made by the mob on the legislature; furniture was demolished; valuable books, papers, and documents which belonged to the court or to the attorney-general's office were scattered abroad or thrown from the windows. Clubs were freely used on such unlucky members of the assembly as could be found within the walls, and some were thrown through the open windows by the maddened crowd.
Many men were sent to the hospital for treatment of their broken he or bruised bodies. But this was not an expression of the Hawaiian people; it was merely the madness of a mob incited by disappointed partisans whom the representatives of the people had rebuked. In the mean time, the newly elected King Kalakaua, the Princess Likelike, and myself were quietly awaiting returns in the house which had been the residence of Queen Emma while her husband was the reigning monarch. At this date she resided in the house of her mother, Mrs.
Fanny Rooke, and we were the only occupants of the mansion of Liholiho. There was complete tranquility also at Iolani Palace, where the late king's remains still lay in state, a few soldiers only being on guard about the chamber in which rested all that was mortal of the deceased monarch. Presently a lady, Miss Hannah Smithies, came into our presence, and abruptly told my brother that he was the king of the Hawaiian people.
He could not believe the matter already settled, and leaving us, walked out a little distance with an idea of meeting some one to confirm or deny the report; he soon returned, closely followed by Mr. Aholo and Mr. Judd, who not only brought him the same news, but informed him of the disturbances at the court-house, from which they said they had but just escaped with their lives. These two friends were followed by Hon.
Bishop, Minister of Foreign Affairs under the late king, who warmly congratulated my brother on his ascension to the throne, and confirmed the statement that a most serious riot was in progress in the business part of the city. No dependence could be placed on the police nor on the Hawaiian Guards; these had proved unfaithful to their duties to preserve order, and had in some cases ed the partisans of Queen Emma in their riotous actions.
So Mr. Bishop asked the king's advice as to whether it would not be wisest to appeal at once to the foreign vessels of war, of which there were three in the harbor, that they might land their forces and restore tranquility to the city. In view of the fact that a riot was in progress, that the halls of justice were in possession of a mob rendered irresponsible by the use of liquor, and that night was approaching, when incendiarism might be feared, my brother, the king elect, my husband, the late Governor Dominis, and Hon.
Bishop, Minister of Foreign Affairs, united in a request to Hon. Henry A. Pierce, the American Minister, that armed men might be landed from the American ships Tuscarora and Portsmouth, to sustain the government in its determination to preserve order, and protect the lives and property of all residents of the city of Honolulu. A force was also landed from the British man-of-war Tenedos, whose commander, Captain Ray, being absent on shore, the responsibility was assumed by his executive officer, Lieutenant Bromley.
Commander Belknap and Commander Skerrett of the United States forces took possession of the square on which the court-house is built; and on seeing this, the mob melted silently and entirely away. The armed marines subsequently, at the request of the Hawaiian authorities, guarded the treasury, arsenal, jail, and station-house. The British marines were marched to the residence of Queen Emma, and, after dispersing the rioters assembled there, they occupied the barracks and guarded the palace itself.
There was no permanent damage done by the disturbance. The Hawaiian people are excitable, but not given to bloodshed or malignant destruction of property. Pierce has been quoted as furnishing a precendent for that of Minister John J. Nothing could be more incorrect. When the town was in danger, and the lives and property of all classes in peril, even then, until written request was made by the king, by the governor of Oahu, and by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, no interference was made by foreign war-ships.
When armed forces were landed it was to sustain and protect the constitutional government at a mere momentary emergency from a disloyal mob. The constitutional government of and the governor of Oahu not only made no request to Minister Stevens, but they absolutely protested against his actionsas an unwarranted interposition of foreign forces in a dispute which had arisen between the queen and a few foreign residents. It was on the request of these latter that Minister Steven's acts were based, at a time when, save for differences of political opinion, the city was perfectly tranquil.
Even had there been a disturbance, no one but the government could have authorized the employment of alien troops. Governor Nahaolelua of Maui, one of her trusted adherents, had left the house early to carry to Queen Emma the news of Kalakaua's election. When she learned the result from the lips of one of her own friends, she could no longer doubt its truth, though it was unexpected and unacceptable.
On the day following the riot she set for Mr. Nahaolelua, and demanded of him if it were not possible to ask for another vote in the legislature on the question of the succession. What might have been the result had he consented to this, cannot be told; for while the matter was in discussion at Queen Emma's residence, there broke in upon their deliberations the booming of the salute of twenty-one guns, indicated that my brother Kalakaua had taken the oath of office.
This would have made any further opposition nothing less than treason, and the matter was consequently dropped. Queen Emma never recovered from her great disappointment, nor could she reconcile herself to the fact that our family had been chosen as the royal line to succeed that of the Kamehamehas. All those arrested for disturbing the peace the day of the election were her own retainers. Two days after the trouble she came to the palace, and used her influence with King Kalakaua to have them released.
As the king went to the audience chamber to receive her, he spoke to the queen and myself, asking us to be present and assist at the reception with himself; but before we could comply with his wishes she had seen him, made her request, and then withdrew hastily from the rooms without awaiting the entrance of Queen Kapiolani or myself. Why she should cherish such bitterness of spirit against the queen is past my comprehension.
Queen Kapiolani had been aunt to Queen Emma, having been the wife of her uncle Namakeha, and had nursed the young prince, the son of Alexander Liholiho, although her rank not only equalled, but was superior to, that of Queen Emma, the child's mother. The sweet disposition and amiable temper of Queen Kapiolani never allowed her to resent in the least the queen dowager's bitterness, nor would she permit herself to utter one word of reproach against the mother of the child she had herself so dearly loved.
In this respect my brother's wife showed her truly Christian character, and there were occasions when the lack of courtesy on the part of the Queen Emma became something very like insult. For instance, it is the custom with the members of the highest families, the chiefs of the Hawaiian people, at such time as it is known that any one of their rank is ill, to go the house of the chief so indisposed, and remain until recovery is assured, or to be present at the deathbed, if such should be the result.
On these occasions, if Queen Emma met Queen Kapiolani, who, of course, from this date became, as my brother's wife, the lady of the highest rank in our nation, she would studiously avoid recognizing her. Many and many a time did Kalakaua make the effort to bring about a reconciliation between the two ladies; but although Queen Kapiolani would have assented to anything consistent with the dignity of womanhood, Queen Emma would not make the least concession.
Even in the very residence of my brother, visiting the palace at the invitation of the king, if the queen were present she avoided recognizing her, and would at times rise and leave when Queen Kapiolani entered, saluting no one but the king as she retired; although this was an outrageous impertinence to the queen under her own roof, it was through Christian charity ignored by its recipient. Notwithstanding this persistent anger, my brother-in-law Hon. Cleghorn, prevailed on his wife, the Princess Likelike, to continue the acquaintance.
I confess that my own patience with such displays was not equal to a like forbearance; and, as I would not stoop to court her favor, nor could accept, without proper and dignified notice, her overbearing demeanor towards myself, Queen Emma never forgave me my own rank and position in the family which was chosen to reign over the Hawaiian people. It did not trouble me at all, but I simply allowed her to remain in the position in which she chose to place herself.
Kalakaua never forgot to invite Queen Emma to all the entertainments given at the palace, and on state occasions he strove to do her the highest honor. At the opening or closing of the legislature a seat was reserved for her appropriate to her rank as queen dowager, but she never showed the king in any way that she appreciated his courtesy. MY brother's reign began on Feb. The prince became regent during the first absence of Kalakaua from his kingdom, on a tour abroad of which I shall soon speak.
He was a very popular young man, about twenty years of age, having been born on the 10th of January, But the amiable prince was not to live to ascend the throne, or even for any extended enjoyment of those social pleasures in which he bore so prominent a part. He died on the 10th of April,having been in the position of heir apparent for about three years. He had the same love of music, the like passion for poetry and song, which have been so great a pleasure to me in my own life, as well as to our brother, King Kalakaua.
He had a taste for social pleasures, and enjoyed the gay and festive element of life. During the absence of the king, there were three separate clubs or musical circles engaged in friendly rivalry to outdo each other in poetry and song. These were the friends and associates of the prince regent, those of the Princess Likelike, and my own friends and admirers. Our poems and musical compositions were repeated from one to another, were sung by our friends in the sweetest rivalry, and their respective merits extolled: but candor compels me to acknowledge that those of Prince Leleiohoku were really in advance of those of his two sisters, although perhaps this was due to the fact that the singing-club of the regent was far superior to any that we could organize; it consisted in a large degree of the very purest and sweetest male voices to be found amongst the native Hawaiians.
They were all fine singers, and these songs, in which our musical circles then excelled, are to be heard amongst our people to the present day. And yet it still remains true that no other composer but myself has ever reduced them to writing. This may seem strange to musical people of other nations, because the beauty and harmony of the Hawaiian music in general and of these songs in particular have been so generally recognized.
But as soon as a popular air originated, it was passed along from its composer to one of his most intimate friends; he in turn sang it to another, and thus its circulation increased day by day. It was not long before every one had the same knowledge of the new melody as happens in communities where a new and favorite air is introduced by an opera company. With other nations music is perpetuated by note and line, with us it is not. The ancient bards of the Hawaiian people thus gave to history their poems or chants; and the custom is no different to this day, and serves to show the great fondess and aptness of our nation to poetry and song.
I will now return to the date of the departure of my brother, King Kalakaua, to the United States. Yielding to the wishes of those residents of his domains who were from American or missionary stock, my brother had organized the negotiation of a treaty of closer alliance or reciprocity with the United States; and even before leaving home he had commissioned Judge Allen and Minister Carter to submit such a treaty to the American government.
To advance the interests of this movement by his personal presence, he accepted passage for himself and his suite on the ship-of-war Benicia, and sailed for San Francisco in the autumn of My husband, the late General J. Pierce accompanied him on his travels. One of the officers of this steamship was Lieutenant Whiting, who received permission to accompany King Kalakaua to Washington.
He is now a commander, and has since married Miss Afong, one of a large family of children, all girls, whose mother is one of our people, but whose father was a rich Chinese resident, now returned to his native land. From the moment of landing my brother made friends, and was treated with the kindest consideration by the American people of all classes. There was a very strong feeling of friendship between the king and the late General U. It amounted almost to recognized fraternity.
The result of this visit is well known. It secured that for which the planters had gained the endorsement of the king; it resulted in the reciprocity treaty of Jan. So this, one of the first official acts of King Kalakaua, was very satisfactory to the party in power; but even then there were a few who protested against the treaty, as an act which would put in peril the independence of our nation.
The impressions of the people are sometimes founded upon truth; and events have since proved that such was the case here, — that it was the minority which was right in its judgment of the consequences of the Hawaiian concession of to the power of the foreigner. On Oct. Cleghorn the child now known to the world as the Princess Kaiulani. She was at once recognized as the hope of the Hawaiian people, as the only direct heir by birth to the throne. Kaiulani was only six months old when my brother, Prince William Leleiohoku died; and it was evident that the vacancy must be instantly filled.
The Princess Ruth, daughter of Pauahi and Kekuanaoa, who had adopted Leleiohoku, had asked of the king if she herself could not be proclaimed heir apparent; and this suggestion was placed before the king's counselors at a cabinet meeting, but it was objected that, if her petition was granted, then Mrs. Pauahi Bishop would be the next heir to the throne, as they were first cousins. At noon of the tenth day of April,the booming of the cannon was heard which announced that I was heir apparent to the throne of Hawaii.
FROM this moment dates my official title of Liliuokalani, that being the name under which I was formally proclaimed princess and heir apparent to the throne of my ancestors. Now that this important matter had been decided by those whom the constitution invests with that prerogative, it became proper and necessary for me to make a tour of the islands to meet the people, that all classes, rich and poor, planter or fisherman, might have an opportunity to become somewhat acquainted with the one who some day should be called to hold the highest executive office.
The first journey undertaken was that of encircling the island on which the capital city of Honolulu is situated; we therefore started from our home to make the trip around the coast-line of Oahu, a tour of nearly one hundred and fifty miles, following the ro which wind along on the brink of the ocean. This we proposed to do on horseback; although my carriage, where I could rest if required, accompanied the party.
Our cavalcade was a large one; my immediate companions being my husband, General J. O Dominis, governor of the island, and my sister, the Princess Likelike, wife of Hon. Cleghorn, who was attended by her personal suite. But large s are no discouragement to Hawaiian hospitality, especially under the additional inspiration of the love and loyalty to their chiefs; so the people opened their doors with an " Aloha nui loa " to us in words and acts, and wherever we went a grand reception awaited us on arrival.
Our route was first to the eastward, past Diamond Head, Koko Head to the point of Makapur, then turning to the northward and around to Waimanalo, where we found ourselves the guests of Ah Kua, a very wealthy Chinaman, who owned a large plantation there devoted to the cultivation of rice. Intelligence of our approach must have travelled faster than we had ridden; for as soon as our cavalcade drew near to this estate we were greeted with a discharge of firecrackers and bombs, let off to do honor to the presence of the heir to the throne and her companions.
There was no cessation of the salutes during the feast of good things which had been spread by Ah Kau for our refreshment, to which and to the professions of loyalty on the part of our host, we did ample justice. From thence we proceeded to Maunawili, the beautiful residence of Mr. Edwin Boyd, whose doors were already opened for our reception; and here we spent the night and remained an entire day, enjoying the entertainment prepared for us, which can be described in no better terms than by saying that we received a royal welcome indeed.
Our progress continued on the day following through Kaneohe, our noonday rest being at the house of Judge Pii, where a generous lunch awaited us on the moment of our arrival. The people of that entire district had congregated to do us honor, and showed us in every way that there was no doubt or disloyalty in their hearts.
Yet, while still at Kaneohe, a letter was received by the Princess Likelike from her husband, in which that gentleman advised his wife to return to Honolulu, and stated it was his opinion that if it was the purpose of my tour to meet the people and cultivate their love, the time spent on the route would be wasted because they were all zealous partisans of Queen Emma. My sister acquainted me with these views of her husband, and asked my advice as to her course.
I did not wish to influence her in any way, and therefore left it to her option to continue the journey with me, or to take Mr. Cleghorn's advice. But we had already advanced far enough on our pathway amongst the people to prove that her husband had made a great mistake, for no heir to the throne could have been more royally received by all than I had lookkng. The princess had not failed to notice this, and as we proceeded it was still more apparent; the most zealous of Queen Emma's people, now that the question had been officially decided, hastened to do us honor.
So, after due consideration, Princess Likelike decided that she would not return. A decision she had no after occasion to regret, and was one which made me very glad; for she was welcomed and showered with marks of favor by the very adherents of Queen Emma, of whose disappointment she had been warned by her husband. It would be tiresome to others, perhaps, should I go on and describe with minute particulars the steps of our party as they passed around the island.
From place to place the soldiershopting was the same, cheerful, hearty, and enthusiastic, — Kahuku, Waialua, Makahao, Waianae, and so on to our latest stopping-place, which was with Mr. James Campbell and his sweet wife at Honouliuli. He had the advantage of a little more time in his preparations for our reception than was possible to some of our other places of rest, and had spared no pains to give us an ovation in every way worthy of himself llooking his amiable companion. The result was a manifestation of kind feelings and generous hospitality such as, even at this distant day, cannot, no, nor ever will be, effaced from my memory.
From thence we started for Honolulu; and as it was noised abroad that the party would enter the city, there was scarcely space for our cavalcade to pass between the throngs of people which lined our way. From Leleo to Alakea Street it was a mass of moving he, through which only slowly could our carriages, horses, and outriders pass. It was understood and accepted as a victorious procession; and out of sympathy for the disappointed dowager queen, our people refrained from noisy demonstrations and loud cheering, and instead the men removed their hats, and the women saluted as we passed.
I have been thus careful in reviewing compankon my first trip as heir to the throne, both because it is a pleasure to recall the memory of that epoch in my life, and further that I may speak with pride of the continued affection, of the unshaken love, of these my people. In some nations the ssoldiershooting, the chief rulers, have gone forth through districts conquered by the sword solfiershooting compelled the people to show their subjugation.
Our progress from beginning to end was a triumphal march, and might well be described as that awarded to victors; but there were no dying nor wounded mortals in our track. We had vanquished the hearts of the people, they showed to us their love, they welcomed me as Hawaiians always have the ruling chief; and to this day, without the slightest appeal on my part, they have shown that their love and loyalty to our family in general, and to myself in particular, have known no change nor diminution, even under the circumstances, now so different from those of twenty soldiershoohing ago.
IN the early part of the year I was not in the enjoyment of my usual good health; and my physician Dr. Tisdale of Oakland Cal. At this date steam communication was not as frequent nor as convenient as has since been established; yet we had very comfortable and pleasant accommodations on the steamer St. Paul, on which we departed.
I was accompanied by my husband, General Dominis; and amongst the agreeable company on board were Mr. Allen, Mr.
Nott, who married Miss Mary Andrews, compannion Mr. Berger, who married a daughter of Judge Weideman. Besides these, I recall the names of Mrs. Dowsett and her son, J. Dowsett, both deceased and Mrs. The trip was made in nine days; and at its termination I obtained my first view of the shores of that great country, the United States, of which land I had heard almost without cessation from earliest childhood. If first impressions be accepted as auspicious, surely I found nothing of which I could complain on this visit; for many prominent citizens of the great city of the Pacific coast came to do us honor, or entertained us hawwii our stay.
Amongst these were my husband's old friend and playmate of earlier days, Governor Pacheco; also Mr. Henry Bishop, brother of Mr. Bishop, who married my sister Bernice; Mr. Severance, at that time in the consular service of the Hawaiian government at San Francisco; Mr. Floyd and soldiershootinv, the gentleman being connected with the great observatory established through the munificence of the late James Lick; Mr.
Toler of Oakland; Mrs. Haalelea and Mrs. Coney at this time residing at Oakland with the children of Mrs. Coney ; and many others, who united to give us a delightful introduction from the islands of the tropics into that land with whose history we have been so intimately connected. The first welcome of strange soldiershoooting is not often forgotten by the traveller, however numerous may be the subsequent experiences; so these flattering attentions were most sincerely appreciated then, and have never ceased to awaken emotions of gratitude in my heart.
While we did not travel extensively through the State, yet our visit to Sacramento must not be passed by without a word; for many were the visitors who called to welcome us while staying at the Golden Eagle Hotel. Amongst these I recall the name of Mr. Crocker, a prominent citizen; then there was Mrs. Charles Crocker, whose home we visited. She occupied a most elegant mansion; and hawaiii its pleasant surroundings, and the generous hospitality with which we found ourselves entertained, the welcome there was not unlike that I have noticed in my of our yilo1 around our island home.
Where all are so perfect, it seems scarcely possible to distinguish one feature above another; yet her art-gallery made a great impression on me at the time, and I can see again, as I recall the past, lookinv many beautiful paintings by prominent artists with which it was adorned. They were works of genius indeed, so true to nature and so lifelike; but they were far too numerous for me to try at this day to ihlo1 them by name.
The least detail of her companiion and beautiful residence was nothing less than perfection. The floors sodliershooting paved with artistic des in tiles of while, of blue, and other colors. There were apartments devoted to several branches of natural history, and the cabinets of stuffed and mounted birds, as well as of quadrupeds and animals in great variety, interested and amused me as if I had been taken to a museum of curiosities. The whole collection must have been of great soldiershpoting, and it has given me pleasure to learn that since my visit it has been turned over lookign the State of California for the delight and information of future generations.
From thence we returned to San Francisco, and after a month's absence prepared for our homeward voyage, which was made on the looknig Wilmington, Captain Fuller, now harbor-master by commission of the present rulers of the port of Honolulu. Solfiershooting ocean air, charming company, that cordial welcome of friends which so quickly lookibg the sense of loneliness one feels when a stranger in a strange land, all had hawii to prove the wisdom of my physician's advice; and I returned in most excellent health and my accustomed good spirits.
During the summer of that year,my husband and I visited the island of Maui, and while General Dominis was for a brief time recalled to Oahu, my brother, His Majesty Kalakaua, came to Maui especially to have an interview with me. He was always kind enough to seek my opinion on questions of public interest, but this trip was undertaken for the special object of consulting me about some appointments to official positions then under discussion.
It was at Wailuku, where my husband had left me at the residence of Hon. Blonde at Honolulu in believed that Young's "constant attachment to his native country, though for twenty-four years absent from it, has doubtless been the cause of the great attachment of the Sandwich Island government to the English. Georg H. London: Henry Colburn, Ebenezer Townsend, Jr. I'i continues later that after his untimely death, "many chiefs and notables mourned Davis, including Kamehameha and the company of warriors who watched over him.
Henry W. London: W. London: Treuttel and Wurtz, Treuttel, Jun. These foreigners estimated to between and persons were described as vagabonds and wanderers, "the very dregs of society. William R. Israel,pp. However, according to Rose de Freycinet, "the gascon Rives" was somewhat of a scoundrel and would later prove an embarrassment to the Hawaiian government. Victor S. Kamakau notes that Vancouver's advice to the chiefs was: 'Stop making war; live in peace; be friends with each other.
Vancouver also used his influence to effect a reconciliation between Ka'ahumanu and Kamehameha following her purported infidelity with another chief. Highland, Roland W. Sinoto, eds. Bernice P. Iselin, Journal of a Trading Voyage, p. Most of the stock Lookimg brought to the islands died, but were replaced by those brought by other traders shortly thereafter.
Captain Richard Cleveland introduced the first horses to the islands in Other imported animals included geese and turkeys. Fruits like the guava and the mango were brought in, along with eucalyptus and kiawe trees. Sheep, goats, and mixed breeds of haaaii were also available to traders by this time, thanks to Vancouver. Presumably this refers to fruits with pits. John L. Stevens and W. Mention of the first liquor on the islands having been produced by escaped convicts from Australia is also found in "History of Hawaii," typed lookjng.
However, John Young supposedly convinced Kamehameha of the evils of drink, and, before his death, the king ordered all the stills on Hawai'i destroyed. Owen, Story of Hawaii, p. These subsistence items included poultry, coconuts, plantains, sweet potatoes, yams, sugarcane, and breadfruit. Vancouver is usually credited with bringing cattle to the islands. However, according to one author, all those Vancouver brought from California died except a bull and a cow, and the cow died shortly after landing.
Hopkins, Hawaii, p. London: R. Whitney,p. In later years the plants and animals introduced by the foreign visitors would have a hawsii impact upon the "native" fauna and flora of these genetically isolated islands. Of course, the plants and animals introduced by the Polynesians had already impacted the indigenous flora and fauna. Within a single day after the Hawaiians observed ironworking aboard one of the ships, they set up their own smithing apparatus and began fashioning their own weapons and tools.
Kamakau lists a of foreigners living in Honolulu in Iselin, Journal of a Trading Voyage, pp. By haawii Kamehameha was also using traders' ships to convey Hawaiian goods and people from one soldiershooting to another. Although trade ed for most of the new weaponry acquired by the Hawaiians, occasionally foreign sailors were killed for their weapons.
It has also been soldierwhooting that Kamehameha's lather may have been the soldiedshooting Kahekili of Soldiershootkng. Richard A. Kamehameha's lineage will be discussed again later. The Hawaiians had a long tradition of using marriage to forge alliances. This sacrifice soldiershootiny characteristic of Hawaiian conquest warfare. If the defeated warrior was not killed in battle, he "was sacrificed to a god of war by the victorious alii compajion in a heiau ceremony.
It is not clear what cession of the island meant to the native chief. The result, however, was that Brown obtained use of the harbor. Apparently Kamehameha's ambitions did not stop with the Hawaiian Islands; at one time he intended to broaden his lookign of influence by taking Bola, one of the Society Islands. Kelly, "changes in Land Tenure," pp. Kelly notes that Kamehameha's military success was aided by the "powerful chiefs who rallied to his support, to a degree attributable to Vancouver's encouragement in Thereafter, he used the existing land system and seldom exercised his prerogative to revoke land ownership.
Marion Kelly suggests that Kamehameha patterned his new form of government after the Western feudal governments described to him by foreigners. These fees fro reduced in upon the advice of Lord Byron. Jarves, "The Sandwich or Hawaiian Islands," p.
Kamehameha flew the British flag over the king's residence for twenty-two years. Wisniewski, Rise and Fall of the Hawaiian Kingdom, p. The ships' captains generally hwaaii that where the king resided, there was less trouble with the natives. In addition, Kamehameha had taken a keen personal interest in trade. John Copanion visited the Sandwich Islands in the early s and traded at several of the ports. Goods on Hawai'i cost from three to six times as much as on the other islands.
A voyage Round the World, in the Years, and2d ed. Soldiershopting A. Maxwell,p. Ernest S. Delano, Narrative of Voyages and Travels, p. The German-born doctor Compainon Anton Schaffer, mentioned earlier, an employee of the Russian-American Company, had come to the islands in hoping to secure the sandalwood trade for Russia. His efforts failed when his agreement with Ka'umu'ali'i foundered.
Excessive Chinese port duties and an extravagant captain contributed to Kamehameha's losses. However, this experience may have given Kamehameha the idea of establishing harbor fees in the Hawaiian Islands. Hopkins, Hawaii, pp. Dale L. Morgan Chicago: R. Information in the above paragraphs has been drawn from Hopkins, Hawaii, pp.
Gast and Agnes C. Marin ? He introduced and raised a variety of European fruits and vegetables and home manufacturing processes and also produced wine. He was a close friend and advisor to both Kamehameha I and II. Malcolm C. These lesser, local chiefs ed the opposition because they realized that if the sacredness of kinship relationships sanctioned by the present system lost their importance, no one outside governmental circles would have any power or status.
Webb and others have pointed out the interesting similarity between Kekuaokalani's role, as keeper of the war god, relative to Liholiho and Kamehameha's role relative to his cousin Kiwala'o, whom he replaced as ruler. Webb states that "the division of power upon the death of a supreme chief into 'secular' and 'sacred' aspects, leaving the two heirs either to fight it out between themselves or to accept a reversion to a rather more decentralised condition may well have been a basic pattern of Hawaiian society.
The idea that two individuals in these positions might share equally and support each other rarely occurred. In fact. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet, Esq 3 vols. Boston: Crocker and Brewster, Frederic Shoberl, ed. Ackermann, Repository of Arts, Strand, Extracts from the Journal of Mr. Remains of Idolatry. June 11, ," The Missionary Herald 24 April : Webb, "Abolition of the Taboo System in Hawaii," p.
See discussion of the kapu abolition and the roles of various people in it in Linnekin, Sacred Queens and Women of Consequence, pp. Webb, "Abolition of the Taboo System in Hawaii," pp. Bythe need for soliciting Ku's help was definitely past. In fact, after the cession of Kaua'i inKamehameha had been able to devote himself to peaceful pursuits.
The state-level Ku rituals were not only unnecessary, but took time away from important commercial endeavors. This timing was crucial, for it would allow the missionaries to accomplish here in a relatively short period what had taken their colleagues fifteen years to achieve elsewhere in the Pacific. This missionary group was the first of fourteen some persons that would come to the Hawaiian Islands over the next thirty-five years, which would include in their ranks ministers, physicians, farmers, printers, teachers, and businessmen.
Albert P. Andrews and Parnelly Pierce Andrews in The phrase quoted is from Hiram A. Judd, ed. The young Hawaiian converts Hopu and Kanui played an important role in helping the missionaries communicate with the native Hawaiians and in smoothing diplomatic relations with Hawaiian leaders.
The Holmans soon left Kailua, and the Thurstons went to Honolulu for about two spldiershooting before returning to the island of Hawai'i. Taylor, Under Hawaiian Skies, p. Taylor also notes that the clerics evidently overlooked the moral courage of a people who had overthrown their own gods, burned their temples, and destroyed the kapu and the feudal power of their leaders. However, because the missionaries imposed such rigid standards, and because the natives did not understand the Western concept of hawaij, few natives were actually admitted info the church during the first few years.
The missionaries felt they had to first destroy the old Hawaiian standards before the natives could comprehend sin and the need lookinh Christ. The missionaries clmpanion the first Catholic priests to arrive in the islands in Byhowever, the Catholic Church had established a foot hold in the islands. Mormon missionaries soon followed. Albert W. Missionary Elisha Loomis went to Kawaihae to teach Kalanimoku and compannion wife and some of their favorite youths. Because of his familiarity with the Polynesian languages, the Reverend William Ellis played an especially important role in developing written Hawaiian.
As the Hawaiian language became more intelligible to the missionaries, a better understanding gradually developed between them and their pupils. Under Hawaiian Skies, p. Dibble, History of the Sandwich Islands, pp. The missionary schools also taught social graces and "appropriate" behavior. Francisco Marin served as interpreter for the government. Jean Rives served as private secretary to the king. Law was the king's physician. After Kamehameha's death, John Young continued to serve the Hawaiian monarchy, but companon role diminished as he grew older.
Bingham suggests that the warfare on Kaua'i haaii little effect on the island of Hawai'i. Revell Co. Richards taught the king and chiefs political economy and "helped them to formulate their thinking in accordance with western practices. Richards was entrusted with negotiating compahion recognition of Hawai'i's independence in See the discussion of the "Great Mahele" in the following chapter. Frederick W. London: H. Bentley,2: White, The missionaries were convinced that changes in land tenure would improve the labor situation, because "the labor due the chiefs interfered with the operation of the wage labor system of free enterprise.
One author suggests that the missionaries tried to curb some of the excesses, insisting upon fair treatment for the Hawaiians. As a result, the enormous profits made by the sandalwood traders dropped considerably. New England and loooking South Seas, p. During the early s, the traders brought two brigs to the islands and traded them for sandalwood. Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, pp. Between and the British, French, and Americans all sent warships to the islands several times to collect debts claimed by traders.
When the king rejected French demands, the French took possession of the Hawaiian fort, pillaged and destroyed government soldiershootnig, and confiscated the king's yacht.
They replaced an earlier treaty with a new one that was much less advantageous to the Hawaiians. As foreign governments intervened to collect traders' debts, the Hawaiian government became increasingly afraid that one of the foreign countries would take over the Hawaiian kingdom. Ralph G. Ward, ed. Honolulu harbor could accommodate more than ships and had a wide range of docking and repair services.
However, it was easier to obtain fresh foodstuffs in Lahaina, and fewer problems arose between the sailors and the local population there. Kealakekua served as the port of entry for whaling vessels. There also existed a small trade in local hides that were shipped to New England.
Consuls from Great Britain and the United States were in the islands by and had made treaties of alliance with the Hawaiian government. State of Hawaii, Historic Preservation in Hawaii, vol. By the summer of it had become apparent to the foreign traders that the missionaries could count on the support of the regency in their quest for reform.
Bradley, American Frontier, p. Additionally, the French became concerned over the cruel treatment the missionaries and Christian Hawaiians accorded their Catholic priests. It is possible that the missionaries' altruism may also have been influenced by their desire to own land in the islands. Jon J. The term "Great Mahele" has been used specifically for the act and collectively for a series of acts passed in the mids that marked the transition of Hawaiian land ownership from traditional right of use to private property.
Kelly suggests that "70 per cent of the adult male population, along with their wives and children, were rendered landless as a result of the Mahele and the Kuleana Act. Randolph and Co. Maturin M.
Despite all these changes, the old system of land division was retained, with the ahupua'a as the basic unit. Larry K. Kohala Keia This is Kohala. Collected Expressions of a Community. A Product of Kohala People. Harold T. Stearns and Gordon A. Geological Survey,pp. Pearson, ed. Again, various estimates of population figures at Western contact have been made.
See, for instance, Stannard, Before the Horror. Henry T. Francis Solduershooting. Thrum,pp. Lloyd J. Soehren and Donald P. Comlanion three National Park Service cultural areas that are the subject of this study are located in the Kohala and Kona districts. The North and South districts of Hawaii and Kohala were created in soldiershooring Holland, "Land and Livelihood," p.
The long-term decomposition of grasses and weeds growing in cracks in the lava flows eventually formed a soil that supported limited agricultural activity near the coast. Holland, "Land and Livelihood," pp. When Liholiho moved his court to Honolulu, he left Kuakini, a high chief and brother of Ka'ahumanu, in control of Hawai'i Island. Bryan, Lookign History of Hawaii, p.
Bryan states that the dor Hawaiian temples were constructed with mortarless rough stones arranged as a "low, truncated pyramid, oblong in shape," supporting an altar, grass houses, soldiersyooting, and other sacred images and objects. That form later evolved into a structure comprising four high walls of stone, surmounted with images and enclosing an area filled with more statues, oracles, and altars. Robert Renger points out that the interest of businessmen in developing the Kona Coast area has precipitated several archaeological and historical surveys in the Kekaha region.
Soldiershopting H. Creighton and George S. The author points out that usually the king allowed only limited provisioning on Hawai'i Island, requiring ships to finish the process at either Maui or O'ahu, possibly because his court was already making heavy demands on the countryside for food and other goods. Apple, "History and ificance of South Kohala," pp. George Washington Bates [pseud. Richard J. Cambridge: John Owen, Doyle, Makua Laiana, pp.
He was living in Kailua in time to greet the Protestant missionaries arriving in the spring of Ellis noted that near Kawaihae, 'The coast was barren; the rocks volcanic; the men were all xoldiershooting in fishing; and Mr. Hilo was informed that the inhabitants of the plantations, about seven miles in the interior, were far more numerous. Doyle, Makua Laiana, p. Beaglehole, ed. Lorna H. Marion Kelly suggests the bathing place in Kawaihae that Ellis is describing is the kapu bathing pool John Papa I'i referred to as "Alawai.
Reportedly its once warm waters had curative powers. Kelly, Listen to the Whispering Sea, p. Ellis, Journal of William Ellis, p. A visitor to Kawaihae in the early s described the same type of process, but in more detail:. Beyond the Purdy house are the Kawaihae salt ponds. When the tide is in, water flows into the first, where it evaporates in the sun until the next high tide.
Then a portion is bailed into the next pond, at a slightly higher level. There the water is more concentrated. Bailing is tedious, for the gourd holds hardly a gallon. In the same way the water is bailed to the third, and yet again to the fourth and smallest pond, each a little higher. Now it is so concentrated that crystals of salt keep forming. These, at first hawaji cubes at the surface, tend to sink; and they form clusters of crystals, perhaps half an inch broad, finally reaching the bottom.
Every day the crystals are raked on to a clean, flat rock, where they dry completely in the sun. Then they are packed into lauhala bags, making bundles. Belt, Collins and Associates. Kalanimoku was the presiding chief of the Kawaihae area, serving as the king's treasurer, land overseer, and war leader. He was also Kamehameha I's prime minister. Kawaihae was his primary residence, where he served as chief until his death in Belt, Collins and Associates, Ltd.
Pulu is the silky, brown fibrous material from jawaii base of the fronds on the Hawaiian tree fern and in buds on the trunk. They were gathered by natives under contract to local traders who shipped them to California for use in stuffing pillows and mattresses. Listen to the Whispering Sea, p. James J. Jarves, Scenes and Scenery in the Sandwich Islands.
Munroe and Co. Kelly, "Changes in Land Tenure. Edward T. This appears to be the same article cited in fn. Other buildings in the vicinity of the landing by consisted of a woolshed, store, boathouse, and jail; by there was also a hotel there. See redrawn George E. Gresley Soldiershoohing map of Kawaihae Bay,hawali A. Loebenstein map, Illustration 31in ibid. Isabella L. Henry M. Erwin N. Army Corps of Engineers in the Pacific, [Honolulu, ca. Walter C. War Department informational booklet of Another conspicuous landmark is a white tomb in the form of a pyramid.
The civil war among the supporters of Kamehameha and Kiwalao, which ended inwas the last military campaign to be fought solely with traditional weaponry. Muskets and cannons greatly increased the costs of war. Kamehameha's speedy adaptation to the new technology, including Western men-of-war and advisers, ed for much of his success. Seaton also raises the question of whether Western seamen and hawqii consciously promoted Kamehameha's use of firearms to assure a stable environment in which to trade.
Kamakau, Ruling Chiefs compxnion Hawaii, pp. Thrum, "Heiaus of Kohala, in "Tales from the Temples. Soehren interprets the data as suggesting that Kapaukahi believed that both the restoration of Mailekini Heiau companiin the construction of Pu'ukohola Soldiedshooting were necessary to win Ku-ka'ili-moku's favor. Thrum, "Tales from the So,diershooting. Part II," Hawaiian Annual forp.
Part II," pp. The details of the latter stages of this campaign, which mention that the rebels decided to encamp at Haleokapuni at Kawaihae and attempt to occupy Puukohola, from which eminence they could shower rocks down onto Lono's troops, verify the importance of this area both logistically and politically in early Hawaiian history. Instead, Lono attained the hill during the hawaiii and was able to repulse his enemies.
Thrum, Memoirs of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 6 vols. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press,5 : It is believed that Kamehameha soldieshooting to keep his younger brother ritually pure, that is, uncontaminated by manual labor, so that he could preside at the consecration ceremony of the completed structure. Taylor, "Puukohola," copmanion. Fornander, of the Polynesian Race, Kamaka Paea Kealii Ai'a writes that during construction of the heiau, as the men passed large stones from hand to hand, the women gathered smaller stones in baskets and passed them along the line.
Haawaii children did their share, returning the baskets to the beach to be refilled. Womb to the Tomb, p. This author's facts are open to question, because he also states that Keoua was the first and only human loking made at this heiau. Obviously, however, several had been offered during construction as part of the ritual process of building a luakini. In addition, it is generally acknowledged that Keoua's companions in death were also offered on the altar of Pu'ukohola.
Whether or not the official dedication of Pu'ukohola was held at the end of construction or whether it was delayed until Keoua's arrival is unclear. However, completion of the heiau and Keoua's death ultimately occured so close together in time that Kapoukahi's prophecy seemed to have been fulfilled. Kaoleioku is said to have been Kamehameha's first-born son, explaining why Keoua assumed his rival would spare the boy's life. Marion Kelly states that Kaoleikou was reportedly conceived while Kamehameha was with Kalani'opu'u's court in Ka'u.
Not all scholars believe there is truth in this legend. Kalani'opu'u raised Kaoleioku, whatever his parentage, as his son. Kaoleioku was interred in the Hale-o-Keawe at Pu'uhonua o Honaunau in Various sources have Keoua killed by a hurled spear Kuykendall, Hawaiian Kingdom,p. Part II," p. William Ellis states that Keoua had come to Kawaihae to surrender to Kamehameha, but that one of Kamehameha's chiefs, despite his leader's objections, waded into the water and stabbed Keoua to death with a knife as he sat in his canoe.
Another version of the story holds that John Young and Isaac Davis, standing on the shore with Kamehameha, shot Keoua. Young who was present that at the time of dedication thirteen human victims were sacrificed. Young, however, told William Ellis the was eleven. See Ellis's description of Pu'ukohola later in this chapter. Fornander also points out that one must view this deed in light of the political and social conditions of the time and the principles that governed men's actions.
This rivalry for power had gone on for nine years and had inspired intense feelings of hatred. Kamehameha's supporters undoubtedly were anxious to remove this impediment Keoua to their leader's unrivalled supremacy: "Under these considerations, though the deed was none the less a cruel wrong and a foul murder. Other sources used for the historical data in this section include Davenport, "Hawaiian Cultural Revolution," pp.
Evidently human skulls and wooden images were used together at some temples and might have been at Pu'ukohola. The adornment of Hawaiian temples with skulls appears to have been common during the time that human sacrifices were practiced. The top floor of the moral was fenced in with a kind of wooden palisade, where formerly hung the skulls of those unfortunates who, according to the religious customs, had been sacrificed on the occasion of the death of a chief, the outbreak of war, or the imminence of a great battle.
According to Boelen, the he were cut off the corpses of the murdered victims and exposed on these wooden stakes. Frank J. A sacrificial ceremony in at Kealakekua consisted of strangling and singeing numerous victims, who were then placed face down in a row with their feet toward the idols. Roasted pigs and dogs were placed between the victims, and the entire offering was covered with coconuts, yams, and plantains.
After the pile had putrefied, the skulls were collected and affixed to the railing of the heiau. Bishop to the Corresponding Secretary, A. John K. Jarves, History of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. Honolulu: C. Hitchcock,p. Gorham D. Gilman, "Journal: Honolulu, May Oct. Varigny, Fourteen Years in the Sandwich Islands, p. Archeologist Helene R. Frank Vincent, Jr. New York: Harper,p. Thrum, "Heaiaus of Kohala, in "Tales from the Temples. Gerard Fowke, Section V.
The structure was taken down several months later, in the early s. See William K.
Kikuchi and Deborah F. Cluff, William K. Kikuchi, Russell A. Apple, and Yosihiko H. Edmund J. Keawe'opala was later conquered and killed in a battle at Kawaihae with the ruler of the other half of the island. That victorious chief, who became the new ruler of South Kohala, was Kalaniopuu. Apple, "History and ificance of South Kohala, p. See, for instance, I'i, Fragments of Hawaiian History, p. Kelly, Hawai'i inp. De Freycinet also mentions that the port of Honolulu was protected by "a very large square fortress" with artillery pieces.
Apple surmised that these guns were probably placed behind a wooden barricade in which gun ports were cut. He believes the ditch that archaeologists found just inside the seaward wall of the structure might have been the foundation for this timber wall. If such coverings as these existed at Mailekini, evidence of them would long ago have faded away. Local informants stated that Mailekini Heiau was used extensively in the late nineteenth century as a burial ground.
Also see Deborah F. It has been stated that Kamehameha fed sharks in this area of Kawaihae and that the temple's name derives from Kapuni, a high priest under Chief Keawe. Pukui, Samuel H. Elbert, and Esther T. Fornander, collection of Hawaiian Antiquities and Folk-Lore, p. Theophilus H. Excerpts from Akau and Doi interview by Fujimori, September 30, p. Doi stated the underwater heiau lay about fifty to sixty feet offshore from the original location of Alapa'i's chair and measured from thirty to forty feet both ways.
Reportedly stone in the area of the chair, from either Pelekane or Mailekini Heiau, was used for backfill during construction of the pavilion at Spencer Park in the s. Local stories say that the driver of the dump truck that backed into this ancient stone and broke it died later that day in a car accident. Akau and Doi interview by Fujimori, September 30,p. Goto interview by Fujimori, September 5,p.
Goto's statements are a little difficult to understand, but he seems to have described a home built of old-style mortar similar to that at the John Young homesite coral ash mixed with concrete and water. He speaks of a cistern underneath the house catching rainwater off the roof. This might have been in the vicinity of Fanny Young's home. This "beautiful building" is also mentioned in connection with the Parker Ranch beekeeper. This might be the Parker Ranch beach home mentioned by another local resident, Solomon Akau.
Akau and Doi interview by Fujimori, September 30, p. Akau mentions that the Parkers had their own cistern in connection with their home. Historian Russell Apple, however, determined from a check of government Land Commission Awards that the John Parker beach house, a large stone residence, stood across Makahuna Gulch from the lower portion of the John Young homestead, which places it farther north than the Pelekane area.
Jackson's map shows a Parker residence in this location. Elizabeth Nagasawa remembers Kawaihae residents drawing water from this reservoir. Elizabeth Nagasawa interview by Rose Fujimori, August 23, It seems certain that this is a charcoal oven. A report on Ki'ilae Village at Pu'uhonua o Honaunau mentions a Portuguese-owned bread oven in that area and states a similar one existed near Kawaihae.
Interview with Mr. This report contains two ing systems, one for the interview section and another for the history section. A similar structure on Kaua'i, built by Portuguese plantation immigrants, was constructed of small bricks, rounded like an igloo, and mortared on the outside. Evidently the man responsible for collecting most of the junk found in the Pelekane area, Eddie Joe Gonsalves?
Jack Paulo, possibly a Filipino, ran the marine railway and had a shack in the Pelekane area when the park was established. Akau interview by Fujimori, January 12,pp. Nagasawa interview by Fujimori, August 23,p. This trail, on the John Young homestead side of the national historic site, becomes approximately the route of the main highway through Kawaihae.
Akau interview by Fujimori, January 12,p. Whether these fishponds near the squatters' huts were in the Pelekane area is unclear. This interviewee also remembers that lori built the charcoal oven now standing in the Pelekane area, p. According to Nagasawa, this beach area formerly had many more pools and ponds of water. In this interview, Fujimori specifically asked about the presence of fishponds, suggesting that because it had at one time been a royal compound, it might well have had a fishpond.
Nagasawa, however, did not remember ever hearing about one here, although it was suggested the cistern might have originally been part of a fishpond complex. William J. This report covers survey work on the coast north of Kawaihae. During World War II, a military training camp was established at the old Kona mill site to train soldiers for battle in the western and southwestern Pacific theaters.
The soldiers scattered machine-gun nests around the pasturelands throughout the area. Kelly, Gardens of Kona, pp. According to Elizabeth Nagasawa, who grew up in Kawaihae, the road used by the military closely follows the route of the old road between Waimea and Kawaihae. She also reported that during the war, many service personnel lived in the Kawaihae area. Her interview also mentions several foxholes near the Pelekane area. Detailed descriptions of the important archeological sites near Pu'ukohola Heiau are found in Soehren, "Selection of Site Descriptions," pp.
However, these lands, acquired through conquest, were Kamehameha's sole property and could be given away and reclaimed at will. He probably considered recipients of these awards more as permanent landlords there by royal consent rather than as owners with full individual title in the contemporary sense of land ownership.
According to Russell Apple, the Hawaiian throne never reclaimed any of Young's lands. Apple, "Bouncing Boundaries of Kawaihae, p. Apple points out that several interpretations exist as to what comprises the John Young homestead. In a broad sense it is the 'ili 'aina of Pohakuloa, which was the northernmost 'ili 'aina of Kawaihae Hikina. Pahukanilua is the place- name that referred in to the lower portion of Pohakuloa on which Young's house stood, and it is assumed it probably referred to the upper portion as well, at least up until This was, in other words, a named piece of land within the 'ili 'aina of Pohakuloa within the ahupua'a of Kawaihae Hikina.
In a much broader sense, the entire ahupua'a of Kawaihae Hikina could be referred to as the homestead area. This report will conform to the narrower delineation of Young's homestead, describing only the physical layouts of the structures in the "lower portion" on the beach that no longer exists and in the "upper portion" further inland that contains several archeological ruins of stone buildings. In historic times, Young had tenants living on the 'ili 'aina of Pohakuloa as well as on other 'ili 'aina of his ahupua'a.
Some of these people lived quite far inland, with scattered houses lying between the beach and these inland communities. Young's second wife, the high chiefess Ka'oana'eha, according to Apple, followed the traditional practices of Hawaiian society, which included living in quarters separate from her husband. Native testimony in indicated that Young was living on the lower portion of Pahukanilua when the battle of Nu'uanu Valley on O'ahu took place Missionary Sereno Bishop mentioned that adobes furnished an excellent cheap building material.
Natives gathered the tough fibers of a species of bunch grass called makuikui, which thickly covered the lower uplands, in large quantities and then trod it into the wet clay soil. This fibrous mortar stood overnight and then was retrodden and molded into huge bricks that were dried in the sun: So tough was the resulting concretion, that it was nearly impossible to drive a nail into a well made adobe.
Apple, Pahukanilua, p. Also see Kelly, Listen to the Whispering Sea, p. Young's Diary,quoted in ibid. Archeological excavations at the site in found remains consistent with plaster made from burned coral and sand, but did not find evidence of poi or of hair particles in the mixture. Rosendahl and Laura A. Hawaiian-style Feature 2 of the John Young complex, which may have been an open working or eating space protected by a shade or other type of shelter, will be discussed later.
Young provides no indication as to whether the cookhouse and lanai were added to the upper or lower portions of his property. Laura F. It is interesting to note, in regard to Alexander Ross's earlier statement that Young was "more Indian than white man" that Mrs. Judd commented on being "surprised to see how imperfectly Mr. Young spoke the native language. It has been theorized that Judd's description of this adobe structure, which contained an upstairs or loft area, might not refer to the ruins within the park today but to an earlier house on the lower part of Young's holdings near the grass residence of his wife.
As timid as Laura Judd sounds, it is difficult to believe she would have walked clear down the hill to the beach from the upper portion of the homestead alone at midnight, although her husband might have accompanied her. Of course the possibility exists that Young's wife had a native-style structure on the upper portion of the homestead. But would Judd then have talked about walking "down" to her home to sleep? In addition, the stone house on the ridge does not appear large enough to have had two stories, although the "rickety flight of stairs" might have been a ladder to a loft.
Judd suggests that Young was living in the house in which she stayed, but this is unclear. Possibly Young used the adobe beach house for occasional entertaining and housing of guests because it was more commodious than the one on the hill. The Reverend William Ellis speaks in of going on shore at Kawaihae and walking "along the beach about a mile to the house of Mr. This also could refer to a house on the beach rather than the one on the ridge.
Young might have alternated between the two for various reasons. Because he was well along in years at this time, perhaps he was more comfortable being near his wife's home in case he needed help. Marion Kelly has suggested that Young's early adobe house at the beach might have been the one the merchant French at Kawaihae later used partly for storage and partly as a residence, Listen to the Whispering Sea, p.
Illustration 64 shows a two-story adobe structure at the landing in town, which looks as if it is a store on the lower level and a residence on the second level. If this is the building that French owned, it is farther north than Young's old adobe beach house. These pictures have generated much discussion among those trying to find early photographic evidence of the appearance of structures on the John Young homestead. He believed that the reverse printing at the top of the photograph which does not show in these prints indicated that the picture had been printed backwards, and therefore this was not the correct location for the homestead.
However, whether or not the picture is reversed depends on whether or not the original negative was labelled on the front or the back. A strong possibility still exists that this is one of the Young homestead structures. Apple, Pahukanilua, pp. At the time John Young II received Kawaihae Hikina in the Great Mahele ofsteps were already underway to legally separate the upper and lower portions of the John Young homestead.
Young's konohiki resident land managerPuna, and Young's wife, Ka'oana'eha, had applied to make their property a private inholding. Rose M. C-shaped features have been interpreted as being temporary shelters for humans or agricultural crops, hunting blinds, or bird-catching shelters. Perhaps these particular structures were occupied by the builders of Pu'ukohola Heiau. The U-shaped structure might have been a plant windbreak for gourds, sweet potatoes, or some type of vine.
The wall might be remains of a habitation feature. Military construction in the area reused some early Hawaiian features. Two examples of military foxholes fashioned from early shelters exist within the park near the visitor center parking lot. A stone alignment found was thought to be a military tent outline. Laura A. Gary F. Folder 2 of 2, Gr. The choice of Mookini over Pu'ukohola as the functioning luakini is an interesting one, perhaps because it was a very old one in addition to being near Kamehameha's birthplace, or perhaps because Puukohola had been used just to insure his conquest of the islands and then basically abandoned?
Hawaii Aboriginal Culture, Vol. Although Mo'okini Heiau might have been the official state temple, the fact that Kawaihae was a royal residence, an important contact point for foreign ships, and residence of the governor of the island, John Young, combined with its past history, would seem to argue a continuing royal presence and thus continuing religious activity.
Young, however, may simply be referring vompanion the sacrifices during construction and those of Keoua and his followers. It is difficult to conclude from this statement how many other victims may have been sacrificed there in succeeding years. Part II,' p. Realistically, however, the configuration of the heiau and location of structures on it might have changed markedly during those thirty years, with the temple's original appearance being very different from the one Ellis described.
Mulholland, Hawaii's Religions, p. No year compwnion other supporting data is provided. Could this be hlio1 A-frame structure Solomon Akau mentioned seeing on the Pu'ukohola platform in the s, which was removed several fpr later? Thomas Thrum mentions the heiau of Wahaula, at Pulama, the first temple built by the high priest Gilo1. The of it states that. Upon the first terrace the female members of the royal family brought their offerings which were taken by the priests. Beyond this first terrace hawali female was allowed to pass.
Two more terraces brings one to the enclosure or temple, in the shape of a quadrangle. A stone wall encloses the temple. Heiaus of Puna," in 'Tales From the Temples. According to Ka'ahumanu, women were never allowed in the sacred temple area proper, but possibly during dedication rites they were allowed to bring offerings. Pu'ukohola's terraces, however, are so large that it would be difficult, if not impossible, to ascend or descend them unless there were steps or toeholds, no or other evidence of which has been found.
Although in many early heiau these terraces were used soldirrshooting entrances, they seem at Pu'ukohola to have been more more a show of massiveness and architectural style, while the northwest corner walkway provided access. Kalakaua, Legends and Myths of Hawaii, pp. Kalakaua specifically notes on p. Samuel Hill says this was done on a projecting rock beneath below? Hiram Bingham wrote that Mailekini had been used for the sacrificial offering of animals and plants, although there is some possibility that it might have been used for human sacrifices before they were carried out at Pu'ukohola.
Varigny states that sacrificial victims were killed on a stone inside the enclosure.