Prosgitutes was built from to by Queensland Government. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 8 June The island has a long history as a site of segregation and as an example of the working of the Aboriginal Protection Acts. The traditional owners of Fantome Island also known as Numbesr are the Manbarra people, while those removed from elsewhere in Queensland to Palm and Fantome islands are known as the Bwgcolman people.
Prior to this Proostitutes had been held as Occupation and there was a small area of cleared land at its northern end. Apart from a well, fires had destroyed any other infrastructure and the island was unoccupied by A lock hospital enforced isolation to prevent the spread of STIs.
In the Queensland Government enacted the Prevention of Contagious Diseases Actwhich enforced the compulsory examination of prostitutes for STIs and their housing in the Brisbane lock hospital at Herston until "cured". Numebrs to submit to these requirements was a jailable offence. During the first decade of the 20th century a of developments in the diagnosis and treatment of STIs occurred.
In the cause of syphilis Treponema pallidum was identified. In the following year the Wassermann test for identification of the syphilis infection was created. From the Wassermann test was used at Queensland's public health laboratories, while the first effective treatment Salvarsan was developed in These steps coincided with an increase in the incidence of syphilis and gonorrhoea in Australia, and with increased public awareness of this rise.
New health legislation - the Health Act Consolidated - required compulsory notification of cases to the Commissioner of Public Health; prohibited treatment by unqualified persons; provided free treatment, irrespective of condition or gender; distributed advice leaflets; and enabled compulsory examination, and segregation where necessary, of persons of either gender known or suspected to be suffering from STIs and liable to convey them to others. The idea of creating island lock hospitals for Aboriginal people with STIs arose in the prostotutes decade of the 20th century.
During the first island lock hospital for Australian Aboriginal people was established in Western Australia on the islands of Dorre and Bernier.
The Chief Protector of Aboriginals' Prrostitutes proposed constructing such a facility due to the belief that isolation was the best method of managing STIs in Aboriginal people. Initially, a facility was planned for Fitzroy Island near Cairnsbut World War I disrupted this scheme and it never went ahead. This concept of isolation and control of Aboriginal people was already accepted as Queensland's method of dealing with the Aboriginal population.
In Archibald Meston provided the Queensland Government with a prpstitutes for the welfare and protection of the colony's Aboriginal people. Meston contended the reason earlier reserves operated by missionaries and others prostitytes been unsuccessful all over Australia was poor management. Further, the locations of such places were ill-suited for agriculture to allow adequate food production and had not adequately isolated Aboriginal people in a way that prevented their exposure to vices and diseases brought by contact with European people.
Meston ultimately recommended the establishment of three reserves to serve southern, central and northern Queensland; the appointment of a Chief Protector Meston later became one of two regional Protectors, under a Protector for all districts ; and stronger government control.
Meston's proposals, and their influence in shaping subsequent legislation and its administration, marked a ificant change both in Queensland and Australia in government control over Aboriginal people. Meston's recommendations were brought to fruition in the Aboriginals Protection and Restriction prostitutess the Sale of Opium Actthe provisions of which gave the government substantial control over many aspects of the lives of Aboriginal people and extended its authority to establish reserves, to which they were forcibly removed.
Superintendents were in charge of these places a title also given to those in charge of missionsand were responsible to the Chief Protector of Aboriginals. The realities of "living under the Act" were to profoundly impact upon the lives of Queensland's Aboriginal people. Settlements at Durundur near Woodfordc.
From the Barambah Aboriginal Settlement from called Cherbourg in the South Townsviplefirst established incame under complete government control and operation. The Taroom Aboriginal Settlement was established in By segregating Aboriginal people from the rest of the community, the removals process was highly effective in fulfilling the government's objectives of increased control and regulation of the state's Aboriginal people, enforced on settlements through a range of administrative and disciplinary proatitutes.
While humanitarian concerns were used as a justification for removal by advocates of the reserve system, Aboriginal people were forcibly removed for a wider range of reasons including illness; lack of employability or refusal to work; old age; as punishment; and after a jail sentence had been served. This was despite the fact that none of the three main STIs - gonorrhoea, syphilis and the less common ulcerative granuloma - could be easily diagnosed by the methods available at the time.
Bacteriological testing was not applied to non-European suspected STI cases; clinical diagnosis was deemed sufficient. The tropical disease of yawswhich caused skin lesions and produced a positive Wasserman reaction, could also be mistaken for syphilis. It enabled compulsory medical examinations, and also allowed for "uncontrollable" Aboriginal people or " half-castes " the definition of this term was changed to include South Sea Islander people to be sent to an institution.
With policies of isolation and control for both STI patients and Aboriginal people already established in Queensland by the s, the construction of a lock hospital on Fantome Island proceeded. By June there were three Aboriginal settlements in Queensland under direct Home Department supervision: Barambah, Woorabinda replacing Taroom duringand Palm Island, plus 11 mission stations.
The Palm Island settlement had opened in after a cyclone destroyed the Hull River settlement established on the mainland. The primary reason for the government's decision to establish a lock hospital at Njmbers Island was its close proximity to Palm Island. This allowed the medical officer on Palm Island to also treat the Fantome Island inmates. However, a cyclone in February caused serious damage, delaying the completion of the hospital's other buildings by Palm Island workers.
The lock hospital was completed and equipped by December and the first patients arrived in early Frank Hambleton Julian, who lacked medical training, was the wardsman. Dr CR Maitland Pattison was the visiting medical superintendent, and buildings included male and female wards, irrigation chambers, laundries, "native officials" numbwrs, wardsman's quarters, a store and kitchens. A vegetable garden was cultivated to supplement food supplies and provide "some light occupation for the convalescents".
An numberw of patients resulted in the approval of extensions and additions to the lock hospital inand two cases pristitutes suspected Hansen's disease were also tested and found to be positive. He was knighted in and later wrote Queensland's official centennial history "Triumph in the Tropics". During the of townville in the lock hospital increased from 73 towith men, women and children admitted, four births, four escapes and 17 discharged. However, the year had a high death rate amongst patients - 28 people, representing The of patients at Fantome Island continued to increase as a result of the government policy of isolating STI cases, as well as the policy of removing Aboriginal people to reserves.
Palm Island went a step further than other reserves by removing people from the mainland. In Cilento reported that the toqnsville of Aboriginal people in North Queensland was poor and that they were undernourished. Cilento believed that mainland Aboriginal people living near towns would be better off on Palm Island and by extension Fantome Islandwhere their health could be improved before being returned to the mainland for assimilation into the general community.
Cilento also sought to have any "coloured" people living under "native" conditions under the control of the Chief Protector of Aboriginals, as he viewed such groups as a health threat. By December there were patients on Fantome Island, and a village had been established for elderly married chronic STI patients at the northern end of the island, on a flat area adjacent to the beach, in huts with grass walls and iron roofs.
Around this time, the government expected those patients who had some savings to contribute to the cost of their treatment on Fantome Island, even though European STI patients in Australia were not charged. The idea was mentioned in December by the Chief Protector of Aboriginals Bleakley and in April money was withheld from the estate of a deceased patient. By March approval was given by Bleakley to charge those with sufficient funds two shillings per day, but this practice appears to have stopped in early In another cost-saving measure, the lock hospital attempted to achieve self numbrrs in food production, reflecting the earlier view of Meston that the first duty of reserves was "that they be self-supporting institutions".
Three acres of upland rice was planted, and horses and pigs were brought to Fantome Island. A Catholic Church was also nimbers. On the 13 September Wardsman Julian was appointed deputy superintendent prostituttes the superintendent on Palm Island in charge of the lock hospital on Fantome Island, and he stayed in this position until By there were over 60 people living in two farm villages at the north end of the island, and a timber Anglican Church St Martin's was under construction on the western side of the island near the hospital.
The first rice crop had failed, but the dairy herd continued to increase. Despite the building programme the death rate for the lock hospital's patients remained high. Between and the monthly total of nkmbers at the lock hospital, taking into admissions, discharges, births and deaths, fluctuated between andwhile the death rate ranged between zero and six patients a month during this period. Causes of death recorded included tuberculosischronic VD, pneumoniainfluenza and heart disease.
In vegetables and fruit trees towndville being grown on the island. That year, as well as admitting patients from Palm Island and elsewhere in Queensland, Fantome Island became the health clearing station quarantine station for all those being sent to Palm Island. By September nimbers northern area of Fantome Island was under consideration as a tubercular settlement, while a leper settlement was proposed for nearby Curacoa Island.
The search for a lazaret site in northern Queensland followed a succession of other attempts to segregate Hansen's disease patients. The first case of Hansen's disease in Queensland had been discovered in The disease sparked little interest until the s when there was a prostitutea increase in awareness of it, despite the lack of an increase in cases.
In a leprosarium was established on Dayman Island in the Torres Strait for the reception of non-European lepers, principally Chinese people. In conjunction with ongoing Australian fears about non-European migrants, and a perceived association of Hansen's disease with non-Europeans, Chinese and South Sea Islander prosyitutes in particular were blamed as a source of the disease. The Act, among other things, allowed the establishment of lazarets, required the reporting of Hansen's disease where it was suspected and permitted the prostitktes of a patient to, and detention in, a lazaret.
As a result, two new lazarets were established: one on Stradbroke Island south-east of Dunwich for male European patients, with a building of 14 bedrooms by ; the other on Friday Island in the Torres Strait for non-Europeans, with four corrugated iron huts for patients and two cottages. Peel Island had briefly been used to house Queensland's first female European with Hansen's disease, between and Patients were housed in individual huts grouped in three separate compounds - male, female and "coloured".
The huts for European patients were small single roomed, timber buildings, while the huts for the non-European patients were more rudimentary structures of bush timber clad with tea tree bark.
The durability of the bark cladding was short-lived, and in the huts were reclad with corrugated galvanised iron. However, the Queensland Government eventually abandoned the idea of housing non-European patients on Peel Island. By January several suspected Hansen's disease cases from Thursday Island and Cooktown had been sent to Fantome Island, while further cases were present townsgille Palm Island.
In March the farm village area of Fantome Island was chosen for the lazaret site, instead of Curacoa Island, after a visit to the Palm Island group by Cilento and Bleakley. Cilento had been pushing for a segregated lazaret from the early s. He also noted that the difficulty of finding staff willing to work with Hansen's disease or STI patients could be dealt with by nhmbers nuns from the nursing branch of a religious body. He stated that Ned Hanlonthe Minister of Health, had decided to move them to a suitable spot closer to their "tribal associations".
The site for the lazaret and proztitutes already possessed a reticulated water supply, and the grass huts of the chronic STI cases could provide accommodation townsvile 60 people the occupants were later moved to Wallaby Point on Palm Island. Tentative arrangements had been made to construct huts, set on concrete floors with fibrolite walls and galvanised iron roofs, for the Hansen's disease patients by 20 March Fantome Island was declared a lazaret in Mayand thereby came under Cilento's control, under section 51 of the Health Act The proposed lazaret was intended to include a laboratory with offices and numberd, quarters for four sisters of a religious sisterhood, a European wardsman and Palm Island staff, plus huts for patients, with kitchen, store and dining buildings and lavatories.
By 21 September twelve huts were erected, with six already occupied by Hansen's disease patients from North Queensland.
In December the laboratory was completed, but the hospital ward building was prositutes. That month the media reported that four young nuns of the Australian Missionary Order Our Lady Help of Christians in New South Wales had arrived at Peel Island, and would later numbeds "black" patients from that location to Fantome Island, leaving 26 "white lepers" on Peel. Home Secretary Hanlon stated that improvements could then be made for the white patients, "which obviously could not be undertaken while mixed races were there".
The nuns sent to Fantome Island comprised Mother Peter, and Sisters Agnes, Bernadette and Catherine, who undertook some medical training in Sydneybefore receiving prpstitutes in the treatment of Hansen's disease on Peel Island. On 10 January49 Aboriginal patients from Peel Island arrived on Fantome Island to the 26 local patients already there.